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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-23

Online since Friday, October 29, 2021

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Caffeine extraction from Arabic coffee: The role of brewing and roasting p. 1
Saad Mohammed AlShareef
Objectives: The global population's primary intake of caffeine comes from the consumption of coffee. Arabic coffee is traditionally brewed and served using a unique process. The objective of this study was to examine the plausibility of two widespread myths regarding Arabic coffee; that the longer the cooking time, and/or the more roasted the coffee, the higher is the amount of caffeine extracted per kilo-gram of raw coffee (CE). Materials and Methods: A total of 12 different samples of traditionally brewed Arabic coffee (with correction of lost volume due to evaporation) were directly analyzed for their caffeine concentration using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The amount of caffeine extracted per kilogram of raw coffee (CE) where then calculated. Comparisons were then made between the CE from three types of raw coffee beans; Yemeni Bari, Yemeni Kulani, and Ethiopian Harrari. They were each roasted to two different grades (light vs. medium-dark) and each grade was cooked for a different duration of time (15 min vs. 30 min). Results: The type of coffee bean used was shown to significantly affect the amount of CE from raw coffee (P = 0.011). The highest amount of caffeine was extracted from raw Ethiopian Harrari coffee bean, followed by the Yemeni Kulani bean (P = 0.020 and P = 0.027, respectively). A longer cooking time significantly decreased the amount of CE from raw coffee as compared to a shorter time (P = 0.041). Medium-dark roasting was observed to cause a slight but nonsignificant decrease in amount of CE compared to light roasting (P = 0.178). Conclusions: The type of coffee bean used in brewing Arabic coffee is the main determinant of the amount of caffeine extracted from raw coffee. Longer cooking time and a darker roast both decrease the amount of extracted caffeine in the final brew, rendering the old myths nonplausible.
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The relevance of prostate cancer screening among Saudi men attending outpatient clinics of tertiary-care hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia p. 11
Ahmed Hussain A. Mujamammi, Essa Mohammed Sabi, Bader A Zawawi, Nawaf A AlDarwish, Meshal A AlEiaidi, Saad AlShalawi, Abdulmalik AlAngari, Fahad M AlOtaibi
Background: Prostate cancer is a significant health-care burden in both developing and under developed countries. Efforts in Saudi Arabia may be hindered by the unclarity of awareness of predictors of early prostate cancer screening, given the complexity of such screening. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess awareness levels of early screening of prostate cancer and its predictors among Saudi men. Methods: A cross-sectional participatory approach was used to assess the awareness levels of early screening of prostate cancer among Saudi men within the age group for which early prostate cancer screening is recommended. Results: Participants were recruited out of those admitted to outpatient clinics of the five largest tertiary-care hospitals. Four hundred and eighteen Saudi outpatient men aged 40–65 years were interviewed. Of all participants, 79.2% had heard of prostate cancer. When comparing eligible age groups, there was a significant difference in the percentage of men who had not undergone prostate screening (P < 0.0001). Across all eligible age groups, 65.8% of participants had not been advised to undergo prostate screening by their primary care physicians. In each age group, more than 75% of men reported that they would consider early screening for prostate cancer. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the percentages of men who would consider screening if they presented lower urinary tract symptoms (P = 0.179). Data on the uptake of voluntary screening of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia are either inconclusive or insufficient. Therefore, it may be challenging to interpret the awareness levels and surveillance strategies for this disease in Saudi Arabia.
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A successful nonsurgical management of Boerhaave's syndrome p. 17
Vamshidhar Reddy Tandra, B Saroj Kumar Prusty, Ravi Kanth Jakkani, Majed Abdul Basit Momin
Boerhaave's syndrome consists of barogenic rupture of the esophagus, in a previously healthy esophagus. This is a rare, serious, and rapidly lethal perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The outcome essentially depends on early diagnosis and prompt intervention. Due to the scarcity of case reports, no clear consensus exists regarding the best therapeutic approach. Surgical intervention has been mainstay of management, but with advances in therapeutic endoscopy, there has been an increasing interest in nonsurgical options. Here, we report a case of Boerhaave's syndrome in a 40-year-old male patient, diagnosed early and successfully treated nonsurgically with temporary placement of fully covered esophageal stent.
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Educational program accreditation: Personal reflections and lessons learned p. 21
Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman, Abdullah I Bukhari, Kholoud J Sandougah, Lulu A Alwazzan, Abdullah A Alzayed, Reem R Alhuthail, Waiel A Daghistani, Hassan Al-Shehri, Tariq Alasbali
The educational program accreditation is a quality assurance process to ensure the quality of educational learning outcomes and enhance the reputation of educational institutions. The accreditation process pushes institutions to meet and maintain their high standards, increasing trust and confidence among the public and impacts positively on the daily educational practices. The program accreditation experience combined pleasure and stress at the same time. The personal reflections for our program accreditation were reported in this short communication.
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