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2018| January-June | Volume 3 | Issue 1
October 19, 2018
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A sociotechnical approach toward earthquake-induced landslides
Mubashir Aziz, Ikuo Towhata
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-12
Many landslides occur as a direct or indirect result of earthquakes. Recent studies have thoroughly examined the connection between earthquakes and post-seismic landslides triggered by rainfalls considering earthquake source distance and magnitude as well as the temporal delay of landslide activation.
Some of the recent seismic events that generated damaging landslides are presented in this study with special focus on socio-technical aspects along with the effectiveness of slope stabilization, the interaction of earthquake and subsequent rainfalls and disintegration of slope material due to water infiltration.
The mechanisms of compound effects are classified together with the research needs and possible mitigation measures. It is anticipated that the increased understanding of such mechanisms in the study areas is likely to be a prerequisite for a meaningful disaster risk reduction. The emphasis is also made on the importance of urgent post-earthquake damage surveys and benefiting from local seismic culture in land-use planning.
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Changes in plasma alanine transaminase/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, aspartate transaminase/serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutathione transferase, and albumin in rabbits given amoxicillin overdose supplemented with cucumber fruit juice
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Oluwatoyin Ateni
January-June 2018, 3(1):22-27
Raw Cucumber (
) fruit juice contains substances of health-promoting bioactivities. Alanine transaminase/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT/SGPT), aspartate transaminase/serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST/SGOT), Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), and albumin are indices of hepatotoxicity, hepatitis, and liver damage which could be drug induced.
Aim and Objective:
This work was therefore designed to changes in plasma ALT/SGPT, AST/SGOT, GST, and albumin in rabbits given amoxicillin overdose supplemented with cucumber fruit juice.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen rabbits of the same sex weighing 0.9–1.4 kg divided into three groups of 5 rabbits each were used for the study. Group A – 5 control rabbits; Group B – 5 rabbits given 30.0 mg/kgBW subcutaneous injection of amoxicillin every 24 h for 7 days which was followed by 30 ml raw cucumber fruit juice supplementation for 14 days; Group C – 5 rabbits given 30.0 mg/kgBW subcutaneous injection of amoxicillin every 24 h and raw cucumber fruit juice supplementation for 14 days simultaneously. ALT/SGPT, AST/SGOT, GST, and albumin were determined in the rabbits biochemically by spectrophotometry and fluorometry.
The results obtained showed a significant increase in plasma ALT, GST with a significant decrease in plasma albumin in the rabbits when the rabbits were given 30.0 mg/kgBW subcutaneous injection of amoxicillin compared with the results obtained from the control rabbits; their basal samples and when the rabbits were supplemented with 30 ml raw cucumber fruit (
< 0.05). There was a significant decrease in plasma ALT, AST, GST with a significant increase in plasma albumin in the rabbits when the rabbits were supplemented with 30 ml raw cucumber fruit juice for 14 days compared with the results obtained from the rabbits when the rabbits were given 30.0 mg/kgBW subcutaneous injection of amoxicillin (
This work revealed hepatoprotective raw cucumber fruit juice as there was no significant biochemical alterations when the rabbits were co-administered with raw cucumber fruit juice and amoxicillin overdose bioactivities while increase in plasma GST, AST, ALT, and decrease in albumin in amoxicillin overdose was reversed to normal plasma levels when the rabbits were given raw cucumber fruit juice. Raw cucumber fruit juice could be taken as antidote in hepatotoxicity.
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Numerical and experimental analysis of the double-diffusive convection in a linearly stratified medium
Mohammed Almeshaal, Karim Choubani
January-June 2018, 3(1):13-21
In this paper, we numerically and experimentally studied the onset and the mechanisms of spatiotemporal evolution of the double convective diffusion in a saline medium linearly stratified and heated from below at a constant temperature.
The numerical simulations were based on the solution of the Navier–Stokes,energy, and concentration equations in stream-vorticity formulation. The numerical method used is the Hermitian compact one. In the experimental studies, a transparent cavity with free surface was filled with linearly stratified solution. The solution was heated from below at a constant temperature. The convective motions were visualized using shadowgraph to obtain more information on density exchange through the interfaces. Furthermore, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the time evolution of the velocity field.
Flow visualizations by Shadowgraph and PIV allowed the comparison between experimental and numerical results.
It was found that a multicellular flow oscillating in space and time mechanisms was observed in both experimental and numerical studies.
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Quality assessment of the Saudi initiative for asthma guideline
Fahad Alfhaid, Mohammed Aljulifi, Tahir Ansari, Abdullah Al-Olayan, Mohammed Almansour, Talal Shakhs Alghamdi
January-June 2018, 3(1):28-32
The objective of this study is to assess the quality of Saudi initiative for asthma (SINA) guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE II) tool.
This study design was methodological evaluation of SINA Guidelines using the AGREE II instrument.
Place and Duration of Study:
This study was conducted from September to December 2017 in the college of medicine, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.
The appraisers assessed the quality of SINA guideline. A descriptive statistical analysis through the calculation of the total, standardized-score value by each reviewer, and the value per domain were performed. Six reviewers evaluated the guideline independently; four of them were family physicians, one was Internist, and the other was pediatric pulmonologist.
We found that clarity of presentation for SINA scored the best (64%). The guideline scored average on the domain related to “scope and purpose” and “stakeholder involvement.” The lowest score was in “applicability” and “editorial independence” domain (25%), respectively. However, the overall quality of the SINA guideline was low, and the reviewer suggested the use of the current guideline after modification.
The results of our studies emphasize the need for addressing the domains with low scores including rigor of development, applicability, and editorial independence. However, the reviewers recommend using SINA guideline for asthma management with taking into consideration the modifications that were noted during the appraisal. We also recommend using AGREE II tool to develop and improve the next version of SINA guideline.
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