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Awareness on the association between skin aging and smoking: Impact on smoking quitting
Arwa Z Fatani, Hussein M Alshamrani, Khalid A Alshehri, Abdullah Y Almaghrabi, Yahya A Alzahrani, Mohammed H Abduljabbar
January-June 2020, 5(1):33-37
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the public's knowledge and awareness of the association between cigarette smoking and skin aging in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted by distributing a questionnaire to the general population of Jeddah across different age groups in 2018. Data were organized using a frequency distribution table, and analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: Among 2443 participants, 68.2% were female and 12.6% were current smokers. More than half (64%) of the participants answered correctly that smoking increases facial aging. Slightly higher number of nonsmokers responded correctly than current and former smokers. There was a statistically significant difference between gender and the response to the association of smoking and skin aging, with majority of the females (71%) responding correctly (P < 0.0001). A considerable number of younger participants and college graduates knew that smoking increases wrinkles. Among the current smokers, 25% said that most/some smokers would quit if they learned that smoking increases facial aging. However, among the current smokers, there was no statistically significant association between their awareness of the relationship between smoking and skin aging and their motivation to quit (P = 0.032). Conclusion: The society's lack of knowledge about the association between cigarette smoking and skin aging needs more attention. Knowledge needs to be spread by prompting health campaigns and by the participation of health authorities to make more effective public health policies against smoking.
  10,058 1,108 2
Characterization and treatment of wastewater from food processing industry: A review
Deborah Olubunmi Aderibigbe, Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa, Isah Adewale Bello
July-December 2017, 2(2):27-36
The food processing industry contributes to economic growth and makes food more available. Wastewaters discharged from food industries need to be characterized often for their compliance to standards by regulatory authorities. In order to reduce environmental pollution, these industries use different treatment methods to treat their wastewater. Characterization of wastewater helps in developing various treatment methods among which are biological techniques, advanced oxidation process (AOP), and more recently adsorption. The biological treatment and AOP have undergone several investigations in the past few years and have advantages ranging from low operation cost to no waste product but not as efficient as adsorption which has low operation cost and high efficiency. This review focuses on works been done on characterization as well as the treatment of wastewater from food processing industry.
  10,077 927 -
The impact of social media volume and addiction on medical student sleep quality and academic performance: A cross-sectional observational study
Saad Mohammed Al Suwayri
July-December 2016, 1(2):80-87
Problem Statement: Social media use may be detrimental to sleep quality, self-esteem, and mental health and may affect academic performance in medical students. However, the effects of problematic social media use on sleep quality and academic performance in medical students are unknown. Approach: A total of 170 medical students in a Saudi Arabian medical school were studied. The relationships between social media use volume (duration of use per day) and addiction (measured using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale) of seven platforms and (i) quality of sleep measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and (ii) academic performance according to the grade point average were examined. Caffeine intake was considered as a potential confounder, and data were analyzed using uni- and multi-variable logistic regression. Results: Poor quality sleep (72.9% and 63.5% during the week or at the weekend, respectively) and social media addiction (27.1% addicted to three or more platforms) were common. Individuals with high-volume WhatsApp (odds ratio [OR] 1.59 [1.20–2.10], P = 0.001) and Snapchat (OR 1.41 [1.10–1.81], P = 0.007) use were more likely to have very poor sleep quality at the weekend, the latter persisting in multivariable analysis. Students who were addicted to Snapchat (OR 2.53 [1.03–6.22], P = 0.044) or who were addicted to three or more social media platforms (OR 2.93 [1.19–7.23], P = 0.019) had an even greater risk of very poor weekend sleep quality. Social media addiction was not associated with academic performance. Conclusions/Recommendations: Educational programs on sleep and social media hygiene and changes to class start times to prevent weekend sleep debt should be considered.
  8,748 761 -
Management of frozen shoulder with oil cupping massage: A case study
Md Hashmat Imam, Mohammad Ishtiyaque Alam, Aisha Perveen, Anirban Goswami, Qutubuddin Khan, Tasleem Ahmad
July-December 2017, 2(2):49-53
Frozen shoulder is a common condition in which the articular shoulder capsule swells and stiffens, restricting its mobility. Key characteristics are gradual onset of shoulder stiffness, pain especially at night, and restriction in movement of the shoulder. It is generally diagnosed clinically or with the help of imaging technique. Conservative treatments include analgesics, oral steroids, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. If symptoms persist despite conservative measures, the surgical treatments were adopted. In modern medicine managing, such conditions are really a hard task. In Unani System of Medicine, there is specific treatment which can provide complete relief; for this, an Unani physician acquires different manipulative therapies such as regimental therapy (massage and cupping). In this paper, one such case is discussed in which patient was distressed by the pain and restricting movements of joints so that performing even small daily tasks are impossible for him/her. The treatment of such painful condition without aid of any analgesic with simple regimental therapy (massage and cupping) is really appreciable. The paper also gives the details of the method employed and material required of massage and cupping.
  8,794 489 -
Psychologic stress and burnout among dental staff: A cross-sectional survey
Abdullah Mohammed Alzahem, Yasmeen Abdulhadi Alhaizan, Latifa Yousef Algudaibi, Ragad Mohammed Albani, Abdulrahman Majed Aljuraisi, Meshal Khaled Alaqeel
January-June 2020, 5(1):9-15
Backgraound: Professional burnout, a prolonged response to stress, may affect standards of patient care. Burnout is defined as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment (PA). Aim: The aim of the current study is to identify and compare the psychologic stress and burnout levels among different job titles and specialties in the dental services department. We also examined the effects of marital status, age, and sex on stress and burnout levels. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in the department of dental services at a tertiary medical complex. Materials and Methods: A convenient sampling approach was used to distribute the questionnaire in the dental services department (n = 177, response rate = 88.5%). Two-validated questionnaires, the Psychological Stress Measure-9, and Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey, were used. Statistical Analysis: SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was used for data analysis. P<0.05 was considered statically significant. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) stress level was 32.6 (±11.43), with the highest stress levels seen in consultants and residents (39.17% and 38.33%, respectively). Hygienists and technicians exhibited the highest lack of PA (24.53%), consultants exhibited the highest EE (24.64%), and residents exhibited the highest impersonal response toward patients (26.67%). Conclusion: Participants with the job title “Consultant” or “Resident” are the most stressed and burnt-out dental personnel. Specialty, sex, age, and marital status were not identified as risk factors for stress and burnout in our study. Stress and burnout should be reduced to maintain standards of patient care.
  7,182 1,229 1
Awareness and knowledge of radiation in common radiological investigation and associated risks among medical students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Sultan T Alturki, Malek Khalid Albusair, Khalid M Aljalajel, Abdulelah S Alshahrani, Mohammed S Albadrani, Arwa A Alhuwaymil, Abdulrahim S Almotairy
January-June 2020, 5(1):16-21
Background: According to previous similar studies, health-care professionals have limited knowledge about radiation doses, and their related risks with medical imaging examinations are deficient. With a proper level of knowledge, future doctors can play a significant role in attributing to patient safety regarding ionizing radiation. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate and establish a national parameter of awareness and knowledge regarding ionizing radiation doses and its accompanying adverse effects among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Participants and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during the academic year 2018–2019. An online survey was distributed to collect the needed data. Students were asked to estimate the most commonly used radiological studies' radiation doses to see if students are aware that the magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are nonionizing imaging studies. Results: A total of 518 students responded, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of studied students was 22.64 ± 1.92, 62.5% were males, and 40% of studied students were 5th-year medical students. About 5.3% of the students were very confident in their knowledge of the ionizing radiation dose, 27.2% were moderately confident, 36.5% not really confident, and 21% do not know. Most of the students, 49.6%, do not know exactly the risk of inducing fatal cancer from an abdominal computed tomography scan. About 63.7% of the students said that children are the most sensitive group to radiation. The total knowledge mean score was 2.25 (SD: ±1.97, median: 2, range: 0–8). We found a significant correlation between the total knowledge score and age, sex, university, and academic year, all with P = 0.001. Conclusion: The assessment of students' awareness of ionizing radiation exposures in diagnostic imaging demonstrates that there is a low level of confidence in the knowledge of the ionizing radiation dose and low total knowledge mean score; this advocates introducing the radiation protection instruction into the undergraduate medical curriculum.
  6,944 1,012 1
Ergonomics and work-related musculoskeletal disorders in ophthalmic practice
Waleed Abdulaziz Alrashed
July-December 2016, 1(2):48-63
Purpose: To increase the awareness of eye health care providers about Work related musculoskeletal disorders and proper ergonomics. Method: Literatures review of all aspect of work related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomics pertaining to heath care in general and particularly to eye care providers. Results: Work related Musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD's) among health care workers including Physicians, nurses, dental hygienist, and Custodial worker are well known. In the last two decades WRMSD's and related problems have being substantiated by different studies on the above mention groups, and in particular Ophthalmologists along with dentists and some surgical subspecialties (Laparoscope surgeons and Ear, Nose, and Throat surgeons). It was attributed to the specific nature of the job which requires prolonged awkward position and repetition. In these series of four articles will try to highlight the most important areas where health care providers especially the ophthalmologist should take care and aware of to prevent or at least reduce the WRMSD's. These areas involve: in the work and outside of work activities and include: (A) Clinic: The proper way of conducting slit lamp examination with or without the use of different lenses. How to perform direct and indirect ophthalmoscopes with the least stressful way to cervical and lumbar spine (will be covered in part 2 of this review). (B) Work station and office: How to set in proper way and how to select ergonomic and comfortable chair, tables, mouse, keyboard, screen and foot rest (will be covered in part 2 of this review). Also computer vision syndrome (will be discussed in part 4 of this review). (C) Operating room: Tips in how to adjust surgeon chair, microscope, and operating table to achieve the best ergonomic position. Also hints in the proper way of selecting and using surgical loupes (will be covered in part 2 of this review). (D) Outside the Hospital: Advises in the proper way of using portable visual display devices (smart phones and tablets etc…) along with hints on how to sit while driving and how to sleep with the least stress to the back and neck(will be covered in part 3 of this review). Conclusion: Adopting a healthy neutral posture and along with the comply of basic ergonomics principles in different areas of ophthalmic works early in the medical career (i.e. Residency) along with maintaining regular muscles stretches and exercise will reduce those unwanted Musculoskeletal squeals and hopefully leading to prolonged and productive healthy career life.
  6,741 579 -
Impact of adherence to antiepileptic medications on quality of life of epileptic patients in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Dhfer Mahdi Alshayban, Royes Joseph, Fatimah Al-Musa, Ola Al-Jabran, Danah Aljaafari
January-June 2020, 5(1):1-8
Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is vital in establishing seizure control. The adherence, in turn, impacts the quality of life (QoL) in epileptic patients. Methodology: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Qatif Central Hospital, and Dammam Central Hospital in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2018 to April 2018. Epileptic patients from all age groups treated with at least single AED and who had follow-up in hospital for the past 6 months were included in the study. Patients with intellectual disabilities and those who received AEDs for other indications were excluded. The participants were interviewed in Arabic, and validated translated version of questionnaire was completed under the following sections: sociodemographic characteristics, adherence assessment using the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS), and QoL in epilepsy patients using EQ-5D-5L. Results: We report 48% of participants with high adherence, 34% with moderate adherence, while 19% exhibited low adherence toward AEDs. Of 80 participants, 25 (31%) reported perfect health status (11,111) and 2 (3%) reported extremely worst health status (55,555). Further, the study revealed a significant (P = 0.045 and 0.035) improvement of QOL in patients with moderate and high adherence compared to patients with low adherence. Conclusion: This study reports high health-related quality index (QoL) in participants with moderate–high adherence. The relationship between adherence and overall HRQoL was directly proportional.
  6,089 1,094 4
A comparative analysis of cybercrime and cyberlaws in Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates
Muhammad Bakhsh, Amjad Mahmood, Israr Iqbal Awan
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-15
The usage of web applications especially social media is increasing day by day. Moreover, the usage of information and communication technology applications both in public and private sector is the need of the hour since the usage of these applications has improved working efficiency. On the other side, excessive use of computer networks and its applications has augmented the issues of cybercrime, and there exist cyberlaws to deal these crimes but in developing countries, these laws are not matured. Furthermore, cyberlaws have been developed in almost every developed and developing country, but their implementation is weak, especially in Southeast Asia and the Middle East due to law unawareness in the masses. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the cybercrimes and cyberlaws, a part from the review of these laws in accordance with Pakistan and gulf countries.
  5,855 711 -
On triage system
Mohanad Abdulhamid, Wekesa Elijah
January-June 2020, 5(1):22-32
Introduction: Triage is the process of categorizing patients in emergency situation according to the severity of their injuries or sickness. This is done in order to give medical attention to those who need it first, to minimize loss of life from injuries. Aims: This article aims to create an electronic triage system based on the Raspberry Pi computer and Arduino microcontroller. The Raspberry Pi computer wirelessly receives data measured by the Arduino and analyses the data after which it automatically categorizes patients with minimal human intervention. Results: The Raspberry Pi runs a graphical user interface-based system that is used to display results and allow for users to input data into the database. The system contains two functionalities, emergency mode (MODE 1) and emergency department mode (MODE 2). MODE 1 is used for urgent outdoor emergency scenarios such as motor vehicle accident with multiple casualties, to determine the seriously injured victims. MODE 2 can be integrated in a medical center where it is used to determine which patient needs immediate attention in a scenario where there are so many patients waiting. In MODE 2, patient's recent vitals readings can be graphically viewed for further analysis and medical doctors can comment on each patient's progress for future reference. This data is then uploaded to an online server. Conclusion: The article focuses on the design and implementation of triage system which is based on Raspberry Pi.
  5,413 313 -
Ambulance response time to cardiac emergencies in Riyadh
Khalid Alnemer, Khalid I Al-Qumaizi, Ahmed Alnemer, Ammar Alsayegh, Alwaleed Alqahtani, Yasser Alrefaie, Mohammed Alkhalifa, Ahmed Alhariri
January-June 2016, 1(1):33-38
Background: Ambulance response time (ART) plays a significant role in patient survival, especially in cardiac emergencies; qualifying as the crucial factor to measure the quality of prehospital emergency care. Thus, this retrospective, cross-sectional study aimed to measure the ART to public cardiac emergencies and to analyze its association with patient survival in Riyadh. Methods: Records of cardiac emergency medical services from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority for 1 year (January 1, 2013–December 31, 2013) in Riyadh were requisitioned. ART was calculated for 18 stations across Riyadh and assessed for confounding factors such as time (day of the week and time of the day), age, gender, and location of the incident. Results: The mean ART was approximately 13 min, with a trend toward prolongation during working hours on weekdays. ART and survival were unaffected by gender and location of the incident but was confounded by the age of the patient (P = 0.001). Conclusions/Recommendations: ART was much longer than the defined international standard of 8 min and comparable to other regions of the world. We recommend the use of motorcycles to transport paramedics to the emergency site, air ambulance, and dedicated ambulance lanes to reduce ART.
  4,969 432 -
Storage and disposal practice of unused medication among the Saudi families: An endorsement for best practice
Jisha M Lucca, Dhfer Alshayban, Duaa Alsulaiman
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-6
Improper storage and disposal of medications potentially pose a significant risk to both humans and animals. It also increases the economic burden to the society. The objective of this study was to investigate the storage and disposal habits of medications among the public of Saudi Arabia. The common place for storage for most of the medications was the fridge, followed by bedroom, kitchen, living room, and bathroom. An average of one to five unused medications were stored inside the house in Saudi. Antipyretic, pain medications and cough medications were the most common stored medications. Furthermore, we attempt to endorse the guidelines by the Food and Drug Administration for the best disposal practices.
  4,383 581 -
Numerical study of natural convection and radiation exchange in an asymmetrically heated inclined channel
Shafqat Hussain
July-December 2016, 1(2):64-74
Introduction: In this paper, numerical study is carried out to investigate natural convection and radiation heat transfer in an asymmetrical heated inclined air channel with open ends. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are solved using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver ANSYS-FLUENT© in conjunction with the discrete ordinate radiation model. Simulations were run considering the channel with inclination angle to horizontal in the range 18° to 45° and a wall surface emissivity of 0.27–0.95. The channel length to channel space ratio was selected in the range 44–220. A uniform heat flux in the range 100–500 W/m2 was applied along the upper wall of the channel while the lower wall and side walls were assumed thermally insulated. Results: Temperature profiles along the upper and lower walls of the channel were obtained with variations in the channel length to space ratios, angles of inclination, radiation emissivity, and input Ohmic heat flux. The effect of various parameters on the maximum wall temperature and heat transfer was investigated. The numerical predictions are validated by comparison with the experimental data available in literature. Conclusion: The numerical results obtained are found in good agreement with the experimental measurements. From the numerical results, a correlation of local and average Nusselt number with modified channel Rayleigh number in the range of 101–105 is developed at asymmetric heat flux boundary conditions. Nu = 0.6851Ra” 0.2612
  4,287 339 -
Association between anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics among medical students in Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia
Fahad Abdullah Alateeq
July-December 2020, 5(2):53-60
Background: Anxiety is a common medical issue in Saudi Arabia, particularly among medical students. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the association between anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were distributed among medical students to investigate the presence of anxiety disorders among them and the associated demographic factors. The study included medical students of different education years at the Faculty of Medicine, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University. A questionnaire formed of 35 questions was distributed electronically among the students by the help of the leader of each educational year. The level of anxiety of each student was determined according to the score of questionnaire answers and the Beck Anxiety Inventory; where the score of 0–21 = no or low anxiety, score of 22–35 = moderate anxiety, score of 36 and above = severe or potentially concerning levels of anxiety. Results: Three hundred and sixteen medical students completed the questionnaire with a response rate 90%. Anxiety was identified in 201/316 (63.6%) students; 98/201 (48.7%) students were with moderate anxiety, and 103/201 (51.3%) with severe anxiety. Out of the 236 males, 136/236 (57.6%) were found to have anxiety, whereas, of the 80 females, 65/80 (81.3%) were found to have anxiety. About 51.3% of the females were found to have severe anxiety compared to only 26.3% of the males. Conclusion: Anxiety is a common problem among medical students of Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia with more prevalence among female medical students compared to males. Furthermore, there was a significant association between satisfaction to study medicine and decreased anxiety development. However, there was no significant association between anxiety and the other studied sociodemographic factors.
  4,336 279 -
Knowledge and attitudes toward child abuse and neglect among medical and dental undergraduate students and interns in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Vidyullatha Gopalakrishna, Bahija Basheer, Afnan Alzomaili, Atheer Aldaham, Ghaida Abalhassan, Hend Almuziri, Maha Alatyan, Mona AlJofan, Reem Al-Kaoud
January-June 2020, 5(1):38-46
Background: Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a major problem around the world including Saudi Arabia. According to National Family Safety Program registry, most of cases of CAN in Saudi Arabia are detected in hospitals. Hence, healthcare professionals play an important role in identifying and reporting suspected cases of CAN. The purpose of the study is to assess knowledge and attitudes toward CAN among medical and dental undergraduate (UG) students and interns in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study distributed a self-administrated structured questionnaire to 351 medical and dental UG students and interns in different public and private medical and dental colleges in Riyadh. Participants were recruited using convenient sampling. The data were entered using IBM SPSS version 22 software. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution), Chi-square test, and t-test were used to perform the statistical analysis. The significance level (P value) was set at <0.05. Results: About 57.5% of the participants reported having formal training on CAN during their UG study. Mean knowledge score related to CAN was 6.81 ± 1.17 for medical participants and 6.35 ± 1.35 for dental participants, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Majority of the participants believed that the main barrier for not reporting a suspected case of CAN is the fear of consequences (medical = 82.4%, dental = 68.5%, P = 0.01). About 77% of the participants agreed to the need for further training in dealing with suspected cases of CAN. Conclusion: This study showed that dental participants had relatively less knowledge about the clinical presentation of CAN than medical participants. Improvements in the educational system are still needed to raise awareness about this issue. Inclusion of case scenarios and problem-based learning may help retain knowledge acquired during training. To increase awareness about the diagnosis and referral procedures, academic institutes should consider continuous educational courses and seminars.
  4,091 416 -
Cyber security in civil aviation
Adrie Stander, Jacques Ophoff
January-June 2016, 1(1):23-26
Introduction: A number of recent claims in the media suggest it is possible to hack into avionics systems and control aircraft from a distance. While cyber security is not seen as a critical issue in aviation at the moment, it is likely to become much more important in the future through the accelerated adoption of information technologies in aviation. Objective: This study aims to determine if there are grounds for such claims. The aim of this paper is not to show how to compromise the information systems of an aircraft, but to indicate that this is not impossible and that vulnerabilities exist. Methodology: Since experimental work in this area is difficult, for obvious reasons, an extensive literature survey was conducted in order to find material related to the subject. Most of the material found is of a theoretical nature and even where possible vulnerabilities were identified it is difficult to show that it could be exploited in real life. Results: The study has found that steps are taken by aircraft manufacturers and controlling bodies to prevent the occurrence of such incidents. However, possible vulnerabilities exist and coordinated action is needed by the aviation industry as a whole, to determine and eradicate such vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities are likely to increase with the move towards fly-by-wire aircraft.
  3,832 454 -
Do people intend to purchase using their smartphone apps? The effect of the privacy concerns among Malaysian buyers
Zakariya Belkhamza
January-June 2016, 1(1):16-22
Introduction: The rise of e commerce and m commerce has brought to intention the privacy concern among mobile buyers, and studies showed that it is an important factor of attitude and intention to buy products or services through smartphones. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the issue of privacy concerns on the purchasing intention among the Malaysian buyers. This was performed by investigating the relationship between the privacy concerns and the intention to purchase using smartphone apps. Methodology: This study gathered data from individual consumers aged between 20 and 40 years old since these consumers have the capability to acquire not just free apps but also paid apps along with better experience in using smartphones. Respondents must also have experienced purchasing and installing smartphone apps through app stores or repositories such as Google Play Store and Apple Store. The research uses nonprobability convenience sampling and snowball sampling as it has been widely used by researchers and academicians in the past with regard to investigating consumer behaviors on e commerce related issues Results: The paper provides significant insights on the issue of privacy concern in the usage of smartphone apps stores which can help the developers such as Google and Apple to improve their apps stores to provide better protection for the users' privacy and security in Malaysia.
  3,924 359 -
Challenges in trauma resuscitation: A systematic review
Aref Ismael Arrowaili
July-December 2016, 1(2):43-47
Introduction: Trauma resuscitations are complicated, high-risk, and time-sensitive actions that need the coordination of different specialists arriving from multiple areas in the hospital. This systematic review aimed to understand the main key challenges of trauma resuscitations using a broad search in various database. Methods: A systematic review of published articles between the year 2000 and 2016 were conducted using different electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Scopus to identify studies evaluating trauma resuscitations challenges. Different keywords were used in this study to recognize relevant articles. The titles of all articles were scanned in the first stage. Irrelevant articles were omitted and the abstracts of the rest articles were reviewed in the second stage. Finally, the full text of all articles which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed and a data extraction sheet was made to summarize all the articles. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results: Twenty five studies were reviewed including; RCT (3 studies), QRCT (5 studies), and descriptive study (17 studies). The results showed that there are four main trauma resuscitation challenges including pre-hospital challenges, error-related challenges, equipment and technical challenges, and finally general challenges. Conclusions: Trauma resuscitation is one of the most critical aspects of emergency care. It is necessary to promote resuscitation care and focus on patient outcomes in terms of mortality and more importantly, functional outcomes. Considering these main factors affecting trauma resuscitation will improve patients' outcomes and help those who are engaged in providing services.
  3,816 372 -
Comparison of clay soils of different colors existing under the same conditions in a location
Ubong Williams Robert, Sunday Edet Etuk, Okechukwu Ebuka Agbasi, Grace Peter Umoren
July-December 2020, 5(2):68-73
Background: The choice of a suitable soil for an intended application depends, basically on one's thorough knowledge of soil properties. Soil color and thermal properties have been found to vary from place to place. However, there is no scientific information on the properties of a soil type formed with different colors in a location and exposed to the same influence for a reasonable interval of time. Consequently, this leaves room for a great deal of speculation and assumption. Aims and Objectives: This work was aimed at examining and comparing some vital properties of two soil samples of the same soil type formed in a place of a particular relief but are observed to be completely distinct in their colors. In addition, a model for prediction of temperature variation with the thickness of each sample was considered. Materials and Methods: Pink clay and yellow clay got from a location were used to prepare six test samples each. The samples were allowed to dry completely under ambient conditions before they were subjected to laboratory- based tests. Results: The results of each test differed for two clay samples. Apart from values of solar radiation absorptivity and flaking concentration, the mean values of sorptivity, bulk density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were found to be greater for pink clay soil compared to yellow clay soil. Conclusion: Clay soils of different colors can differ in their other properties even if they exist under same conditions in a particular location. During the time of minimum temperature or the hottest time of the day, pink clay would record a lower temperature than yellow clay.
  3,940 206 3
Genotoxic burden of water pipe smoking in arabian countries: The risk in female population
Dhafer Mahdi Alshayban, Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Muhammad Tariq Aftab
July-December 2019, 4(2):31-38
The perception that water pipe smoking (WPS) is safe mode of smoking is biased; the purpose of this study was to review literature for genotoxic effects of WPS and associated vital organ damage. The amount of nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, tar, and heavy metals delineated after prolonged exposure to WPS exceeds that reported for cigarette smoking (CS). WPS is related to diverse adverse health consequences on cardiovascular, respiratory, hematological, and reproductive systems without sparing infants who are reported to born with reduced birth weight and length from exposed mothers. WPS causes significant reduction in mRNA expression levels of DNA repair genes (OGG1 and XRCC1) compared to CS and predisposes to heightened risk of developing bladder cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancers. Education about the harmfulness of WPS and policies to limit its use should be implemented, particularly in females (Graphical Abstract). [INLINE:1] Graphical Abstract
  3,644 259 -
Protecting the content through learning object metadata
Shaina Raza, Syed Raza Bashir
January-June 2016, 1(1):3-8
The web is full of numerous educational resources but they are not being properly used by the educators. There is so much pedagogical content available on the open web that is being ignored. A lot of learning initiatives stepped in to propose recommendations and guidelines to ensure interoperability of digital content. This has led to the development of learning objects repository (LOR) whose goals are interoperability, reuse, sharing, and retrieval of learning content. However, at the same time, the reproduction of learning material should not breach the copyright protection of the right holders as it is an act of cybercrime. In the lifecycle of LOR development, learning objects (LOs) are annotated using metadata descriptors to specify their syntax and semantics. This annotation process has led to the development of learning objects metadata (LOM) whose ultimate goals are to make searching and cataloging of LOs an easier task. LOM standard includes a number of sections, one of which is the “Rights” category which takes care of intellectual property rights and terms for the use of an LO. This paper presents the idea that how learning resources are annotated using LOM standard and how this annotation contributes to anti-cybercrime in formal education. More specifically, the paper tells that the “Rights” category and some related elements that work together for the provision of protection to the content holders. The paper also suggests that there should be some standardized mechanism for the automatic annotation of LOs so as to give copyright protection on permanent basis.
  3,490 406 -
Promoting research in applied sciences in Saudi Arabia
Khalid Bin Abdulrahman
January-June 2016, 1(1):1-2
  3,465 419 -
Cyber insecurity as a manifestation of new form of global urban vulnerability
Aliyu Salisu Barau
January-June 2016, 1(1):27-32
Introduction: As unprecedented urbanization continues to unfold; cities increasingly depend on the expanding internet of things (IoT). Cyber-attacks and insecurity are the emerging challenges that remain least investigated. Methods: To address this challenge, an online survey was conducted to gain insights from experts resident in 32 cities from Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The issues covered in the survey include types of devices for accessing the internet, time spent accessing the internet, extent of city dependency on IoT, feeling about cyber-attack threats, services most vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Results: The study concludes that vulnerability of urban population to cyber-attacks is inevitable at present. As more people and cities are connected to digital devices the more, they comprise their privacy and security. Unlike conventional urban vulnerability, the knowledge of managing cyber vulnerability is limited to a few individuals and corporations. Conclusion: To promote the culture of cyber-attack resilience, people need to understand the basic ideas behind malware (viruses, worms, and trojans) and cryptography.
  3,518 354 -
Patient health monitoring system based on zigbee communication protocol
Mohanad Abdulhamid, Kiprono Victor
July-December 2019, 4(2):49-56
This study presents a review of ZigBee communication protocol and a wireless sensor network (WSN) for monitoring patients' physiological conditions continuously using ZigBee communication protocol. The physiological conditions monitored are body temperature and pulse rate. The body temperature and pulse rate are monitored by ZigBee sensor nodes for each patient, and the output is transmitted via ZigBee communication protocol to a ZigBee base node. A peer-to-peer network topology is implemented with three ZigBee sensor nodes and a ZigBee base node. The observed physiological signals are then sent from the ZigBee base node to a remote wireless monitor hosted in a personal computer via a universal serial bus. The remote wireless monitor is made of a web server and web interface. The medical attendant can then simultaneously monitor remotely multiple patients from one patient monitoring station.
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Technology integration in education
Shahnawaz Khan, Sultan Alamri
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-7
The current generation of learners has been very much influenced by technology. Instructors have the power to engage learners in the learning activity using online resources, tools, or apps at learners' level of interest. However, there has been the issue of clearly defining integration of technology in education. Technology integration in education is a process, and it would be considered effective if learners are capable of choosing a tool which can help them to acquire, analyze, synthesize, and present the information in a timely and professional manner. Nevertheless, technology is a means or a tool to achieve an end goal, and technology is not the end in itself. This paper discusses the various tools and resources available for education and their advantages and disadvantages. How can we improve the technology integration? What are the options available? This paper discusses these issues and their possible solutions.
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